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I () II () III ()

2004





............................................ 1 I ......................................... 2
........................................................................ 2 ........................................................................................ 3 ............................................................................................ 6 .................................................................................... 7 ] .................................................................................... 8 ........................................................................ 9 ............................................................ 10 1. .......................................................... 10 2. ..................................................................... 12 3. ....................................................... 14 4. ................................................... 16 5. .................................. 17 .................................................................... 20

.................................................................. 21 II ..................................................... 30 .................................. 30 .................................................. 30 .................................................. 32
I

.......................................... 34 ] .......................................... 36

III ................................. 43 .................................................................. 43 .................................................................. 44
............ 45 ................................ 47 ................................ 50 .................... 52

ࡤ .................................................................. 54 .................................................. 55
.................................................... 55 .................................... 59

] ...................................... 64
.................................... 65 ............................ 66 .................... 67 .................................... 68

II


1 ......................................................................5 2 ...........................14 3 .......................................19 4 ...................................21 5 ...........24 6 ځ(1991~2003 ) .............46 7 (1993~2003 ) .........................49 8 (1991~2003 )..............................49 9 ...........................................52 1 ...........................22 2 ...........23 3 ...........................25 4 ...........26 5 ...........................28 6 ...................................37 7 ...........................38 8 ...................39 9 ...........40 10 .................................41

III



I

2004

1

I

10 29 o T 28

2


ল 2003

G i(aij ? C Lij ? j ? K ij ? K cj )

(1)

a G i i ij i
j C Lij i j j j K ij K cj Rij j R ij ij ? C Lij ? i (2)

(1) aij D zħۧ C Lij
C Lij[Wk ? f ijk ] / 100

(3)

(3) Wk

f ijk i

3

j C (1)(2) j ۨ

f ijk Wk

j[]/[]

(4)

(4) B (1) K ij K cj K ij K cj aij j (3) aij
4

aij C

f ijk Wk C Lij B

j K ij K cj 1 G G G G 1

1

5


ء k r ӧ

6

৵ Z 2002 9 (1-4) (5-7) (8-10) ا


9 21
7

500

]
""
8

ҧ s




9


1. 0~30cm çߡ§ 20
10

ݧ 50100 100 ~150 է 25 2000 / 3 20~30 ç
11

2. ̦ 6.66% 0.11% 0.022% 0.019% Z ᧳
12

100g ܧ 607 13.7% ֦ pH

13

3. ֧ߧ () 200 2

2 200 /
14

Չ]
15

5  20%~50% 4. ˧ Ҧ ()() ݣ() () pHEh ()

16

֧ L () () 25 mg/kg 5 mg/kg ^ z 5. 姹

17

ߧ֧ ()k 麟 3 樢

18

3


19


֡ 1/2 § 8% 3% 65% 30 ҧ 1800~2500 / ֨ ৿ 400-800 /  120 /( 30 cm1.25g/cm3 ) 2.5 300~500 /
20


G 1 4

















CL CL


















4



21

1
(2) (3) S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 cm kg/(?) (11) pH


(1) mm (m) . 200 (2) (6) (9) kg/(?) 200 200 .



(2) (4) (7) . . . . . . . . . . . kg/(?)

10(2) (5) (8) (10)

3 10 19 910 68 35 02 10 0 10 0 pH=6.5~7.5 10 pH9.5 0 0 10 0 10 Ѩ 0 10 0 10 0 4-5 1 10 զ 0
22

2

(1). GPS (2). 10 (3). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (4). 1 252 20253 10204 010 ()()()() (5). 1 2 3 4 5 6 (6). 1 2 3 a b c d (7). 1 2 3 4 (8). 1 ( IIIIII IV )2 3 V 4 (9). 1 752 50753 50a b c d (10).

23

(11). 5

5



24

3
(2) (3) cm


(1) mm 10 (5) (8) (m) . 200 (6) (9) 200 200 .





(4) (7)


/cm (13) pH

(10)
0~10 10~20 20~30 30~40 40~50 50~60 60~70 70~80 80~90 90~100

(11)

(12)

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

(18)

(19)

(20).

25

4



(1). GPS (2). 10 (3). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (4). 1 252 20253 10204 010 ()()()() (5). 1 2 3 4 5 6 (6). 1 2 3 a b c d (7). 1 2 3 4 (8). 1 ( IIIIII IV )2 3 V 4 (9). 1 752 50753 50a b c d (10).(Munsell Soil Color Charts) 428
26

(11). TDR 1 2 3 4 5 (12).1 2 3 4 5 6 (14).1 (1%)2 (1%5)3 (5%15)4 (15%30)5 (30%50)6 (50%) a 220 mm b 20 mm (15).1 2 3 4 5 (16).1 2 3 4 5 (17).1 2 (14 /cm2)3 (4 /cm2)a b c (18). pH pH pH (19).1 2 3 4 5 (20).Ŏ

27

5
pH 0 1 2


æ (ID):

() 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 pH 1.0 w 0%30% (05 cm) <1% pH 0.51.0 2 pH

w w 30%70% >70% 50%90%R >90%R (05 cm) (05 cm) 1%2% >2%

28



II

2004

29

II

2002



30

S 0 S1 ڦ

T0 F0
Ħ T1 F1

YS1 ? ( F1 ? T1 )S 0 ? ( F0 ? T0 )

1

M Y 1
31




ˁ (0100 ) X1X2X3 X4 X1 2 3 X4 X11 12 13 14 41 X X X X X X X42X43
32

Xi Xj aijaji1 Xi Xj aij3aji1/3 Xi Xj aij5aji1/5 Xi Xj aij 7aji1/7 Xi Xj aij9aji1/9 a11 a12 a13 a14 a21 a22 a23 a24 a31 a32 a33 a34 a41 a42 a43 a44

ۧdi Wi
di = 4
4

a
j =1

ij

Wi = d i / d i
i =1

4

4 dijWij
4

Wi Wij
j1

4

W 1
i i1

څ
33

P0 P 1

P0 (Fij ? Wij )
i1 j1 4 4

4

4

P1 (Tij ? Wij )
i1 j1

P1P0 ǧ P0 P 1 P1P0



34

X1X12 Xi Xj aijaji1 Xi Xj aij3aji1/3 Xi Xj aij 5aji1/5 Xi Xj aij7aji1/7 X Xi j aij9 aji1/9
a11 a12 a13 a19 a21 a22 a23 a29 a31 a32 a33 a39 a81 a82 a83 a89 a91 a92 a93 a99

ۧdi Wi
di = 9
9

a
j =1

ij

Wi = d i / d i
i =1

9

9

W1
i i1


35

څ P0 P 1

P0 ? Fi ? Wi ?
i1 9

9

P1 ?Ti ? Wi ?
i1

P1P0 ǧ P0 P 1 P1P0

]

36

6



() ()




()























37

M

7

kg




()











38

8



()


X11
X1

F11 F12 F13 F14 F21 F22 F23 F24 F25 F26 F31 F32 F33 F34 F35 F41 F42 F43

T11 T12 T13 T14 T21 T22 T23 T24 T25 T26 T31 T32 T33 T34 T35 T41 T42 T43

X12 X13 X14 X21


X2

X22 X23 X24 X25 X26 X31


X3

X32 X33 X34 X35

X41
X4

X42 X43

P

P0

P1

P1P0

39

9
()

x2 (1) x3 (2) x4 (3) x5 x6 x7 x8 x9 x1






F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9


(1) (2) 7 11 5 (3) (4)

40

10



()






41



III

2004

42

III

13 13 512 f ֨ 16 19 20 20 ݧ 20 70 2/3 18 20
43

60 1 1999 755 16.7 M


ҧ
44

28 ᨮ ާ Z


4.5 10 1000 18 M 6

45

6 ځ(1991~2003 ) 1997 2001 15 1999 2002 755 16.7 16 2.65 ۧ 2000 2001 2002

46


k 5 60姹() 178.81 6 ۙ 1200 2000 / 1600 /
47

30 (Environmental degradation: the product of land use EPA 30 ۧ 2000 2002 7 8

48

7 (1993~2003 )

8 (1991~2003 )

49

ڧ k Z 姿 60.8 (912 ) 400 4 2004 2010


ۧ M 2003 95.3 3.3% 237.9

50

7.7% 102.3 5.2% 135.6 9.6% 2002 45 55 43572003 212 45.4% 48.5% 58.0 273.7 / 0.3% 15.6% 3.4% 1999 4.5 1000 2003 148.3 62.9% 133.6% 90 10 27.7 50% 11

51

1997 3224 () 2003 6496 9

9


5 755 11 50 َƧ

52

k 8.0%2003 6496 55% 400 43% 1500 ^ ߧ 5060

53

3040 ٮ 2004 ৳ 50 83 50 81 g 2001 . . 2004 1 . ۿD2003 42 3 2004



54

u ֧ 姹姹



60 1985
55

B 8 ̷ 1950 10 10800 kg 1990 89 891300 kg 1950 2580 / 1990 5607 / 1.7 Z 10 ٨
56

20 ӧ 70 45 470 B ^ 20 60 ৹ k
57

20 r k 60 5700
58

§ 21 k ()


h

59

 10% 35% 70%80% h z ()z
60

] څ 1998 1000 M
61

15 8 4 ާ 3 kަ 1999 1600 68 Z
62

駿] ҜZ Z b Z 1990 ։^ (T) Ti
63

֏ §

]
ۨ , 侮 5

64


¦˧ 2000 4089 ( )(FAO) UNEP œ 2001 ৵ 2005 ߧ ێ
65




2003 9 1 ֧ ۧާ ۜ騴 ݧը ۜ ֦

66

ٳ ൵ 2000 2001 ৵ ֧


""1999

67

4.5 10 1000 ߧ 2003 148.3 62.9% 133.6% 90 10 27.7 11


]

68

"]""" "" ۜ 2004 30.92 11.4 9140 3.8 z () z ]

69



393345 393440 11622571162409 ߦ 96 3.5 ʡ Q 8.6 2.6 5 2 20 200 1.5 6000 1999 p 4 ɦ 3 2235m 11.5 611mm
70

8-11m 20 Ө 10 3 15.08hm2 226.20 10KV 1 4860


211.35 hm2 3170 1~2m 10~20 2000 2 3m 2000m2 1m 10

71

1642.69 51.82% 695.85 21.95% 226.20 7.14% 68.25 2.15% 199.62 6.30% 84.45 2.66% 253.18 7.99%ڧ ӧ Ӧ

10

72


973.65 1 2 ϧ 3 4 ֡ J 19 137
73

6 6 6 6 5 m 3.5m 13.77km 5m 6.73km 3.5m 7.24km 5m 3.5m  2.94km 5m 5 3 2 3.5m 2 ա 13.77km 5934 9654 4310 80cm 4 70-100 35 30m3/h PVC 34841m 682 N 6 2 3 1 ڡ 1.85km 3.86km 7m3 1m 2 2m 650m 11
74

11


1. 1 2.6m/s
75

3.5 m/s 2 611mm 70% k 3 4 է ڡb ֡ 5 2.
76

19 A B1C1C6 C2 C3 C4 C1 C5 C6 C 7 C B2 7C13 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 B3C14C15 C14 C15 B4C16C19 C16 C17 C18 C19 3. AHP A C{C1C2C19} Ci Cj aijaji1 Ci Cj aij3 aji1/3 Ci Cj aij5aji1/5 Ci
77

Cj aij7aji1/7 Ci Cj aij9aji1/9 a11 a12 a13 a14 a21 a22 a23 a24 a31 a32 a33 a34 a41 a42 a43 a44

ܧdi Wi
di = 4
4

a
j =1

ij

Wi = d i / d i
i =1

4

010 04 47 710 c1 200kg/ 5 350kg/ 8 2003 姹姹
78

19 10 7 57 5 3 11

C1 kg/ C2 a C3 C4 m C5 hm2 C6 km/hm2 C7 km/hm2 C8 km/hm2 C9 hm2 C10 yuan/a C11 C12 n/a C13 C14 C15 hm2 C16 n/a


350 10 201/211 1.00 9.13 38/211 12.3/211 13.77/211 174.42 5000 75 60 27.16/211 6.47/211 50 4


0.09 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.40 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.30 0.06 0.09 0.09 0.06 0.30 1.00 200 0 171/211 0.25 1.5 0/211 1.85/211 0/211 109.51 4860 60 100 15.08/211 0/211 150 10


5 0 7 3 2 0 1 0 18 4 4 6 4 18 5 0 3 3 11 47 0.45 0 0.28 0.12 0.08 0 0.04 0 0.97 0.32 0.28 0.48 0.28 1.36 0.3 0 0.27 0.18 0.75 3.08


8 5 9 9 9 4 8 9 61 8 5 8 6 27 8 6 6 7 27 115 0.72 0.35 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.16 0.32 0.36 2.99 0.64 0.35 0.64 0.42 2.05 0.48 0.54 0.54 0.42 1.98 7.02

79


1. 3 ᧹ 0.97 2.99 3 L 1 200kg/ 350kg/ 樰 2՜ 9000 1800 /hm2 64 106.75 T1+950.14/106.759.9 10 3 1m 10 12.3km 38km 13.77km

80

2. ᧹ 1.36 2.05 1 2616.34 2 400500 3 177.91 4 3. 0.75 1.98 1 6.47hm2(97.12 ) 21583
81

2 973.65 3 4. 3.08 7.02 2 Ħ

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