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Driven to Distraction


Driven to Distraction 分散注意力驾驶 Joe Coyne 滑进驾驶室, 发动汽车朝城里开去。 空荡荡的那段州际公路结束了, 进入到拥塞的城市。 这时,一个行人突然从 Coyne 的车前穿过,他急忙紧急刹车。 Joe Coyne slides into the driver’s seat, starts up the car and heads to town. They empty stretch of interstate gives way to urban congestion , and Coyne hits the brakes as a pedestrian suddenly crosses the street in front of him. 但是, 就算 Coyne 来不及刹车, 那个妇女也不会有事。 因为她是一个假人。 整座城市也是假的。 Coyne 并不是真的在开车。他只是在演示计算机操控的驾驶模拟器,帮助 Old Dominion 大学的研究者们检测车 内导向系统如何影响开车人。 But even if he hadn’t stopped in time , the woman would have been safe. She isn’t real. Neither is the town. And Coyne isn’t really driving. Coyne is demonstrating a computerized driving simulator that is helping researchers at Old Dominion University (ODU) examine how in-vehicle guidance systems affect the person behind the wheel. 研究人员希望了解这些能够提供语音或书面指示的系统是否干扰太大,或者这些干扰能否与这些系 统给驾驶员在陌生环境里指路的益处相抵消。 The researchers want to know if such systems, which give audible or written directions, are too distracting-or whether any distractions are offset by the benefits drivers get from having help finding their way in unfamiliar locations. 主持研究的心理学助理教授 Caryl Baldwin 说:“我们一直关注着驾驶员的表现和精神负荷。”这包括 驾驶员在对听觉和视觉提示作出反应时的反应时间和大脑活动。 “We’re looking at the performance and mental workload of drivers,” said Caryl Baldwin , the assistant psychology professor leading the research , which involves measuring drivers’ reaction time and brain activity as they respond to auditory and visual cues. 研究人员刚刚完成了一项关于在不同环境中,如交通畅通或交通拥挤时驾驶员精神负荷的调查。 Baldwin 说,初步的调查结果显示,人们“在更富挑战性的环境中驾驶时,并不会对周围环境的变化作出 更大的反应。” The researchers just completed a study of the mental workload involved in driving through different kinds of environments and heavy vs. light traffic. Preliminary results show that as people “get into more challenging driving situations, they don’t have any extra mental energy to respond to something else in the environment,”

Baldwin said. 她说,两种提示的交替使用还是有效的。下一步,他们将测试为驾驶员提供导向信息的不同方法以 及这些方法如何改变驾驶员的精神负荷。 But the tradeoffs could be worth it, she said. The next step is to test different ways of giving drivers navigational information and how those methods change the drivers’ mental workload. Baldwin 说:“是给驾驶员看类似地图那样的显示图片好,还是让他们听到指示信息好呢?” “Is it best if they see a picture…that shows their position, a map kind of display?” Baldwin said. “Is it best if they hear it?” 现在市场上的导向系统会按照预定的路线一个地点一个地点地给出指导。Baldwin 说:“这些系统通 常不会原谅人的错误。如果驾驶员错过了一个转弯,它们就会变得非常生气。 Navigational systems now on the market give point-by-point directions that follow a prescribed route. “They’re very unforgiving ,” Baldwin said. “If you miss a turn , they can almost seem to get angry. 这种指导信息的方式通常会使更喜欢笼统信息的驾驶员产生一种受挫感。Baldwin 说,笼统的信息 却会使更喜欢线路指示的驾驶员感到困惑。 That style of directions also can be frustrating for people who prefer more general instructions. But such broad directions can confuse drivers who prefer route directions, Baldwin said. 她说,也许系统制造商们应该允许驾驶员能够选择自己喜欢的指示方式,或者改变系统以驾驶员更 喜欢的方式提供某些信息。 Perhaps manufacturers should allow drivers to choose the style of directions they want , or modify systems to present some information in a way that makes sense for people who prefer the survey style , she said. 有意思的是,其他研究者表示 60%的男性更喜欢这种提供调查信息的导向系统,而 60%的女性则更 喜欢线路指示系统。Baldwin 说,这也就可以解释为什么女人喜欢下车问路,而男人却不喜欢的经典例 子。 Interestingly , other research has shown that about 60 percent of men prefer the survey style, while 60 percent women prefer the route style, Baldwin said. This explains the classic little thing of why men don’t like to stop and ask for directions and women do , Baldwin added.



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