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英语六级阅读练习题[1]


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六级阅读练习题精选

Directions: There are 4 passages in this Part. Each passage is followed by some questions or Unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One

In the 1962 movie Lawrence of Arabia, one scene shows an American newspaper reporter eagerly snapping photos of men looting a sabotaged train. One of the looters, Chief Auda abu Tayi of the Howeitat clan, suddenly notices the camera and snatches it. Am I in this? he asks, before smashing it open. To the dismayed reporter, Lawrence explains, He thinks these things will steal his virtue. He thinks you're a kind of thief.

As soon as colonizers and explorers began taking cameras into distant lands, stories began circulating about how indigenous peoples saw them as tools for black magic. The ignorant natives may have had a point. When photography first became available, scientists welcomed it as a more objective way of recording faraway societies than early travelers' exaggerated accounts. But in some ways, anthropological photographs reveal more about the culture that holds the camera than the one that stares back. Up into the 1950s and 1960s, many ethnographers sought pure pictures of primitive cultures, routinely deleting modern accoutrements such as clocks and Western dress. They paid men and women to re-enact rituals or to pose as members of war or hunting parties, often with little regard for veracity. Edward Curtis, the legendary photographer of North American Indians, for example, got one Makah man to pose as a whaler with a spear in 1915--even though the Makah had not hunted whales in a generation.

These photographs reinforced widely accepted stereotypes that indigenous cultures were isolated, primitive, and unchanging. For instance, National Geographic magazine's photographs have taught millions of Americans about other cultures. As Catherine Lutz and Jane Collins point out in their 1993 book Reading National Geographic, the magazine since its founding in 1888 has kept a tradition of presenting beautiful photos that don't challenge white, middle-class American

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conventions. While dark-skinned women can be shown without tops, for example, white women's breasts are taboo. Photos that could unsettle or disturb, such as areas of the world torn asunder by war or famine, are discarded in favor of those that reassure, to conform with the society's stated pledge to present only kindly visions of foreign societies. The result, Lutz and Collins say, is the depiction of an idealized and exotic world relatively free of pain or class conflict.

Lutz actually likes National Geographic a lot. She read the magazine as a child, and its lush imagery influenced her eventual choice of anthropology as a career. She just thinks that as people look at the photographs of other cultures, they should be alert to the choice of composition and images.

1. The main idea of the passage is ______________.

[A] Photographs taken by Western explorers reflect more Westerners’ perception of the indigenous cultures and the Western values.

[B] There is a complicated relationship between the Western explorers and the primitive peoples.

[C] Popular magazines such as National Geographic should show pictures of the exotic and idealized worlds to maintain high sales.

[D] Anthropologists ask the natives to pose for their pictures, compromising the truthfulness of their pictures.

2. We can infer from the passage that early travelers to the native lands often _________.

[A] took pictures with the natives

[B] gave exaggerated accounts of the native lands

[C] ask for pictures from the natives

[D] gave the natives clocks and Western dresses

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3. The author mentions the movie Lawrence of Arabia to ___________.

[A] show how people in the indigenous societies are portrayed by Westerners.

[B] illustrate how people from primitive societies see cameras as tools of black magic that steal their virtues.

[C] show how anthropologists portray untruthful pictures of native people.

[D] show the cruel and barbarian side of the native people. 4. “But in some ways, anthropological photographs reveal more about the culture that holds the camera than the one that stares back.” In this sentence, the “one [culture] that stares back” refers to _______.

[A] the indigenous culture

[B] the Western culture

[C] the academic culture

[D] the news business culture

5. With which of the following statements would Catherine Lutz most probably agree?

[A] Reporters from the Western societies should routinely delete modern elements in pictures taken of the indigenous societies.

[B] The primitive cultures are inferior to the more advanced Western culture.

[C] The western media are not presenting a realistic picture of the faraway societies.

[D] People in the Western news business should try not to challenge the well-established white middle-class values. 答案及解析

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1. 答案是[A] Photographs taken by Western explorers reflect more Westerners’ perception of the indigenous cultures and the Western values. 解析:本文的主题是,西方的媒体,为了迎合西方读者猎奇的心理,同时,为了不与西方 读者的中产阶级价值观发生冲突,在他们拍摄的照片中,并不是真正客观公正地反映经济 发展水平较为落后的社会中人们的生活。他们经常有意删除照片中反映西方文明烙印的成 分,甚至摆布照片中的主人公,以描绘出一个西方读者想象中的,经济不发达的,有异域 风情的,没有痛苦和阶级斗争的经济落后社会的画面。他们甚至避免刊登那些反映饥荒, 战争,灾害的照片,以满足西方媒体“只刊登外国社会美好一面的照片”的默契。

2. 答案是[B] gave exaggerated accounts of the native lands 解析: 文章第二段说, When photography first became available, scientists welcomed it as a more objective way of recording faraway societies than early travelers' exaggerated accounts.可见早期 到原始社会旅行回来的人往往对当地的情况夸大其词。在照相机发明之后,科学家能更好 地客观反映那些远方地区的真实情况。

3. 答案是[B] illustrate how people from primitive societies see cameras as tools of black magic that steal their virtues. 解析: 文章的第一段介绍的是著名的 1962 年获得 7 项奥斯卡大奖的电影 《阿拉伯的劳伦斯》 (导演:DAVID LEAN)中的一个片段。该电影本来与作者要讲的题目并无直接关系。作 者仅仅通过一个电影中描述的场景来说明一个论点。那就是比较原始,开化较晚的社会, 那里的人们对现代的文明,和从没见过的现代文明的产物容易产生误解。电影中的土著抢 走了 LAWRENCE 的照相机,因为他怀疑,那从未见过的玩意儿会偷走他的“美好品德 (VIRTUE)”。但是,作者在下文说,那些土著居民的担心并非全无道理。因为西方的记 者和学者们,为了描绘一个西方人心目中固有的土著社会(或者经济发展欠发达社会)的 形象,故意篡改照片,满足西方读者的好奇心,并且有意迎合西方中产阶级的趣味。在短 文中,作者有时候并不开宗明义,直奔主题,而是利用人们都熟悉的文化元素,例如诗歌, 书籍,电影,歌曲等,引起读者对其讨论话题的兴趣,然后再引入主题。并不是每一篇文 章都会开门见山,读者不应该把每篇文章的首尾句都当成对文章大意的总结。

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4. 答案是[A] the indigenous culture 解析: in some ways, anthropological photographs reveal more about the culture that holds the But camera than the one that stares back.本句是文章切入主题的重点句。 考生应该格外注意在阅读 文章靠前部分出现的,以转折词(例如,HOWEVER, BUT,NEVERTHELESS, NONETHELESS 等)开头的句子。那往往是作者叙述传统论点,或者普遍看法的关键地方。 本句可以理解为:但是,在某些方面,人类学家拍摄的照片展现的与其说是那个盯视着照 相机的(被拍摄的)文化,不如说是反映了拿着照相机的(西方)文化。作者暗示,照片 反映了西方摄影者的偏见和对落后文化固有的看法,反映的是西方的价值观,并不是完全 真实客观的那些不发达社会的写照。这句话基本上是对文章中心意思的总结。如果对文章 的主题有大致的认识,就不会将本题选错。

5. 答案是[C] The western media are not presenting a realistic picture of the faraway societies. 解析:Catherine Lutz 是文章中提到的 1993 年出版的 READING NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 的作者之一。她们在书中写道,《国家地理》杂志自从 1888 年创刊以来,就一直刊登那些 不和美国中产阶级白人的价值观发生冲突的照片。照片中可以表现袒露胸部的黑色皮肤的 妇女,但是白人妇女的胸部就是禁止刊登的对象。她们认为,这样做的后果就是,在那些 西方主流杂志中展现的,似乎是相对而言没有痛苦的,也不存在阶级斗争的社会。因此答 案 C The western media are not presenting a realistic picture of the faraway societies(西方媒体并 没有展现落后地区的真实画面)最能表现该作者的观点。

Notes 生词注释: snap v. 按动快门 loot v. 掠夺,抢劫 sabotage v. /n. (从事)破坏活动 indigenous adj. 本土的 exaggerated adj. 夸张的

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anthropological adj. 人类学的 ethnographer n. 民族志学者,人种学者 accoutrement n. 穿着,配备 enact v. (本文)扮演 ritual n. 典礼,(宗教)仪式,礼节 veracity n. 真实性 legendary adj. 传说中的,传奇般的 reinforce v. 增强 stereotype n. 陈腔滥调;老套 taboo n. 禁忌,避讳 unsettle v. 令人不安 depiction n. 描述 lush adj. 青葱的,味美的,繁荣的

Passage Two

The British Medical Journal recently featured a strong response to what was judged an inappropriately lenient reaction by a medical school to a student cheating in an examination. Although we have insufficient reliable data about the extent of this phenomenon, its prevention, or its effective management, much can be concluded and acted upon on the basis of common sense and concepts with face validity.

There is general agreement that there should be zero tolerance of cheating in a profession based on trust and one on which human lives depend. It is reasonable to assume that cheaters in medical

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school will be more likely than others to continue to act dishonestly with patients, colleagues, insurers, and government.

The behaviours under question are multifactorial in origin. There are familial, religious, and cultural values that are acquired long before medical school. For example, countries, cultures, and subcultures exist where bribes and dishonest behaviour are almost a norm. There are secondary schools in which neither staff nor students tolerate cheating and others where cheating is rampant; there are homes which imbue young people with high standards of ethical behaviour and others which leave ethical training to the harmful influence of television and the market place.

Medical schools reflect society and cannot be expected to remedy all the ills of a society. The selection process of medical students might be expected to favour candidates with integrity and positive ethical behaviour—if one had a reliable method for detecting such characteristics in advance. Medical schools should be the major focus of attention for imbuing future doctors with integrity and ethical sensitivity. Unfortunately there are troubling, if inconclusive, data that suggest that during medical school the ethical behaviour of medical students does not necessarily improve; indeed, moral development may actually stop or even regress.

The creation of a pervasive institutional culture of integrity is essential. It is critical that the academic and clinical leaders of the institution set a personal example of integrity. Medical schools must make their institutional position and their expectations of students absolutely clear from day one. The development of a school's culture of integrity requires a partnership with the students in which they play an active role in its creation and nurturing. Moreover, the school's examination system and general treatment of students must be perceived as fair. Finally, the treatment of infractions must be firm, fair, transparent, and consistent.

6. What does the author say about cheating in medical schools?

[A] Extensive research has been done about this phenomenon.

[B] We have sufficient data to prove that prevention is feasible.

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[C] We are safe to conclude that this phenomenon exists on a grand scale.

[D] Reliable data about the extent, prevention and management of the phenomenon is lacking.

7. According to the author, it is important to prevent cheating in medical schools because ____________.

[A] The medical profession is based on trust.

[B] There is zero tolerance of cheating in medicine.

[C] The medical profession depends on the government.

[D] Cheating exists extensively in medical schools.

8. What does the author say about the cause(s) of cheating?

[A] Family, culture and society play an active part.

[B] Bad school environment is the leading cause of student cheating.

[C] Parents are always to blame for their children’s cheating behaviour.

[D] Cheating exists primarily because students learn bad things from TV.

9. According to the author, what precautions should medical schools take to prevent students from cheating?

[A] Medical schools should establish a firm moral standard to weed out applicants with low integrity.

[B] Medical schools should make efforts to remedy the ills of a society.

[C] Medical schools should teach future doctors integrity and ethical values.

[D] There is nothing medical schools can do to improve the ethical behaviour of their students.

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10. The author will probably agree with which of the following statements?

[A] Medical schools should make exams easier for the students to alleviate the fierce competition.

[B] Prominent figures in the medical institution should create a set of moral standards to be applied in medical schools.

[C] Medical students should play an active role in the creation and preservation of a culture of integrity.

[D] Those students who cheat in the exams should be instantly expelled from school. 答案及解析

6. 答案是[D] Reliable data about the extent, prevention and management of the phenomenon is lacking. 解析:文章第一段说,Although we have insufficient reliable data about the extent of this phenomenon, its prevention, or its effective management, much can be concluded and acted upon on the basis of common sense and concepts with face validity.可见, 到目前为止, 我们还不很了 解医学院作弊现象的严重程度,也不甚明了如何对该类现象进行预防和管理。既然目前所 掌握的 DATA 是 insufficient(不充足的),那么[A][B][C]所说的都不符合文章的原意,故 均为错误选项。只有[D]的叙述正确。

7. 答案是[A] The medical profession is based on trust. 解析:作者在第二段说,人们一致认为,医学的基础就是诚信。在医学院就作弊的学生通 常比其他人更容易做出欺骗病人,同事,和政府的事情。因此,医学以诚信为本的性质就 决定了, 对医学院的作弊行为应该坚决打击。[B]项说的是打击作弊行为的结果,而不是原 因。[C]医学依靠政府,[D]医学院中作弊行为普遍存在,都不符合文章内容。

8. 答案是[A] Family, culture and society play an active part.

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解析:[A]的内容符合文章的原意。作者在讨论作弊现象的根源时,结论是,作弊现象存在, 原因是多方面的。学生在上医学院之前受到的家庭,社会和文化的熏陶在很大程度上决定 他们是否会在考试中作弊。也就是选项[A]的内容。[B][C][D]的说法虽然都有道理,但是都 过于绝对。学校的环境,家长的教育,电视的影响,虽然都起一定作用,但是都不能说是 决定性的。Leading,always,primarily 之类的用词决定了它们都不是最佳选项。

9. 答案是[C] Medical schools should teach future doctors integrity and ethical values. 解析:[A]“医学院应该确立明确道德标准,淘汰道德素质低下的申请者”是错误选项。因 为文章谈到如何甄别申请医学院学生的道德素质的时候,作者用的是虚拟语气 have 的过去 式 had(if one had a reliable method for detecting such characteristics in advance):如果能有可 靠的标准,能预先了解学生的道德水平,医学院在录取的时候应该照顾那些恪守道德准则 的学生。可见目前并没有这样的标准可循。[B] Medical schools should make efforts to remedy the ills of a society.和文章的内容相反。 因为文章明确地说 Medical schools...cannot be expected to remedy all the ills of a society.[C]项错,因为文章的本意是,医学院的学生在学期间,道德 素质不仅不会提高,而且可能下降(regress)。但是作者并没有说,医学院在提高学生素质 方面无计可施,而是敦促学校采取相应措施,imbuing future doctors with integrity and ethical sensitivity,(增强未来的医师们的道德感)。 10. 答案是[C] Medical students should play an active role in the creation and preservation of a culture of integrity. 解析:[C]项和文章最后一段的 The development of a school's culture of integrity requires a partnership with the students in which they play an active role in its creation and nurturing 相呼 应。[A]错,因为作者没有建议医学院应该降低考试难度。[B]的叙述不准确,因为作者的本 意是医学界的要人应该树立楷模,而不是让他们设定一套人人遵循的行规。[D]错,作者仅 提议医学院对有违反道德准则学生的处罚应该是坚决,公正,透明和统一的。作者并没有 明确倡议一旦有作弊行为就将其开除出校。

Notes 生词注释: inappropriate adj. 不合适的; 不适宜的

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lenient adj. 宽容的, 宽恕的, 仁慈的 validity n. 确实性, 效力, 合法性

multifactorial adj. (不常用)多方面的 familial adj. 家庭的 norm n. 标准, 规范, 准则 rampant adj. 繁茂的, 蔓延的, (本文)猖獗的 imbue v. 浸透,使充满,感染 ethical adj. 道德的; 伦理的 remedy v. 治疗, 修理, 补救 integrity n. 正直, 诚实, 清廉, 完整 regress v. 退回, 倒退 pervasive adj. 到处弥漫的, 到处渗透的 nurturing adj. 养育的, 培养的 infraction n. 违反, 违法的行为 transparent adj. 透明的

Passage Three

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A big focus of the criticism of computer games has concerned the content of the games being played. When the narratives of the games are analyzed they can be seen to fall into some genres. The two genres most popular with the children I interviewed were ‘Platformers’ and ‘Beat-them-ups.’ Platform games such as Sonic and Super Mario involve leaping from platform to platform, avoiding obstacles, moving on through the levels, and progressing through the different stages of the game. Beat-them-ups are the games which have caused concern over their violent content. These games involve fights between animated characters. In many ways this violence can be compared to violence within children’s cartoons where a character is hit over the head or falls of a cliff but walks away unscathed.

Controversy has occurred in part because of the intensity of the game play, which is said to spill over into children’s everyday lives. There are worries that children are becoming more violent and aggressive after prolonged exposure to these games. Playing computer games involves feelings of intense frustration and anger which often expresses itself in aggressive ‘yells’ at the screen. It is not only the ‘Beat-them-up’ games which produce this aggression; platform games are just as frustrating when the characters lose all their ‘lives’ and ‘die’ just before the end of the level is reached. Computer gaming relies upon intense concentration on the moving images on the screen and demands great hand-to-eye coordination. When the player loses and the words ‘Game over’ appear on the screen, there is annoyance and frustration at being beaten by the computer and at having made an error. This anger and aggression could perhaps be compared to the aggression felt when playing football and you take your eye off the ball and enable the opposition to score. The annoyance experienced when defeated at a computer game is what makes gaming ‘addictive’: the player is determined not to make the same mistake again and to have ‘one last go’ in the hope of doing better next time.

Some of the concern over the violence of computer games has been about children who are unable to tell the difference between fiction and reality and who act out the violent moves of the games in fight on the playground. The problem with video games is that they involve children more than television or films and this means there are more implications for their social behavior. Playing

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these games can lead to anti-social behavior, make children aggressive and affect their emotional stability.

11. What is the topic of this article?

[A] How does playing computer games affect the level of violence in children [B] There is no difference between Platform games and ‘Beat-Them-Ups’. [C] How to control anger while playing computer games [D] How to make children spend less time on computer games

12. Which of the following games is supposed to contain violent content?

[A] Sonic [B] Super Mario [C] Platformer [D] Beat-Them-Up

13. What does unscathed (Paragraph 1, Last line) probably mean?

[A] unsettled [B] unbeaten [C] unharmed [D] unhappy

14. According to the second paragraph, how does violence relate to playing computer games?

[A] When losing computer games children tend to experience frustration and anger. [B] Beat-Them-Ups are more popular with children therefore more likely to produce violent behavior. [C] People who have good hand-eye-coordination tend to be more violent than others. [D] The violent content in the games gets children addicted to the games.

15. According to the author, why do video games lead to violence more than TV or movies?

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[A] Because children cannot tell fiction from reality.WWW.CN-MPA.COM 2005-8-16 5:10:56 [B] Because children like to act out the scenes in the games on the playground. [C] Because computer games involve children more than TV or films. [D] Because computer games can produce more anti-social behavior. 答案及解析

11. 答案是[A] How does playing computer games affect the level of violence in children 解析:文章的主题,可以从第一段中看出。作者开头就说,A big focus of the criticism of computer games has concerned the content of the games being played(计算机游戏的内容遭到 很多非议)。第二段开头,作者又用这样的话引出下文:Controversy has occurred in part because of the intensity of the game play, which is said to spill over into children’ everyday lives. s There are worries that children are becoming more violent and aggressive after prolonged exposure to these games.(计算机游戏引起争议,有部分原因是因为,小孩打游戏总是过了 头,游戏已经渗透到他们生活中去。人们担心,孩子们因为打游戏时间过长,渐渐变的有 暴力倾向。 第三段开头, ) 作者说, Some of the concern over the violence of computer games has been about children who are unable to tell the difference between fiction and reality 对计算机游 戏的一些担心,来自于孩子无法辨别虚构世界和现实世界。可见,作者本文主要讨论的问 题,是计算机游戏中的暴力给孩子们带来的影响。

12. 答案是[D] Beat-Them-Up 解析:该细节可以在文章第一段找到。文章第一段介绍了主要的两类电子游戏:Platformers 和 Beat-Them-Ups。前者包括 Sonic 和超级玛丽。后者是打游戏者作为游戏中的卡通人物的 单人独斗类游戏,后者一般被认为有暴力内容。关键语句为 Beat-them-ups are the games which have caused concern over their violent content. 13. 答案是[C] unharmed 解析:可以根据上下文判断:文章第一段结尾,unscathed 出现的语句为,In many ways this violence can be compared to violence within children’s cartoons where a character is hit over the

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head or falls of a cliff but walks away unscathed. (从很多方面来说,可以把电子游戏里的暴 力和卡通片里的暴力比较:卡通片中的人物被击中脑袋,或者从悬崖上掉下去,也可以毫 发无损地走开。)只有[C]正确。其他选项,[A] unsettled:紊乱的,无人居住的,东飘西荡 的,不安定的。[B] unbeaten:未捣碎的,未被击败的;未被超越的;[D] unhappy:不快乐 的,不幸福的,都是错误选项。

14. 答案是[A] When losing computer games children tend to experience frustration and anger. 解析:文章第二段介绍为什么沉迷于电子游戏中会使孩子们产生暴力倾向。作者先将本段 内容在开头进行综述,小孩打游戏总是过了头,游戏已经渗透到他们生活中去。人们担心, 孩子们因为打游戏时间过长,渐渐变的有暴力倾向。尤其是游戏即将失利的时候,玩家就 会觉得沮丧,为自己曾经的失误气恼, 总想再来一次(have ‘one last go’)。作者说, Platforms 和 Beat-Them-Ups 同样会使孩子们觉得失利后的沮丧,因此[B] 的说法, Beat-Them-Ups 更受欢迎,因此更容易激发暴力行为,是错误的。[C] ,手眼协调出色的人 更容易有暴力倾向,文章并没有相关内容。[D],游戏中的暴力使得孩子们沉迷于游戏中, 文章也没有这样的说法。作者认为,容易使孩子们沉迷于其中的,是他们自己玩游戏时候 的失利,游戏结束时,看到 GAME OVER,他们对自己在打那一局时所犯错误的懊恼。 15. 答案是[C] Because computer games involve children more than TV or films. 解析:问的是为什么电子游戏比电影和电视更容易激发孩子们的暴力行为。解题的关键语 句是 The problem with video games is that they involve children more than television or films and this means there are more implications for their social behavior.电子游戏比电影或电视都更 容易让孩子们有身临其境的参与感,从而对他们的社会行为影响更大。容易错选成[A],孩 子们分不清虚构和现实世界,这虽然是文章原句,但这并不是作者想引出的游戏和影视的 根本区别。[D]是打游戏的结果,并不是作者想探究的,为什么游戏比影视更容易让孩子产 生暴力行为的原因。

注释 Notes narrative n. (本文中作名词)叙述,故事

南方学习网英语部

genre n. 类型,流派 obstacle n. 障碍物 animated adj. 动画的 cliff n. 悬崖 unscathed adj. 毫发无损的 controversy n. 争议 spill over into 深入到,渗透到 prolonged adj. 长时间的 frustration n. 挫折 coordination n. 协调,协调性 annoyance n. 烦恼,烦扰,恼怒,恼火 addictive adj. 让人上瘾的 implication n. 含义,内涵 stability n. 稳定性,稳定

Passage Four

In Brazil, the debate over genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, affects mostly soybean production. Brazil is the world's second largest producer of soybeans behind the United States and ahead of Argentina. Most European and Asian retailers want to remain GM free.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Brazil are going on a media offensive to prevent the legalization of genetically modified crops. Environmentalists and consumer groups for years have

南方学习网英语部

been able to thwart government and companies' attempts to legalize altered food. In radio dramas that are being broadcast in remote regions, Brazilian NGOs are telling soy farmers the use of genetically modified seeds could endanger their health, their fields and their business. We are not saying that genetic engineering is, in principle, something bad; we say that we need more science to be sure that it will work in an appropriate way with no harm in the future, said campaign coordinator Jean-Marc von der Weid. This is both for health and environmental reasons. The other question is on economics. What we think is that in Brazil, if we approve the GMOs, we will lose a spectacular advantage that we have now. We are selling more to the international market, mostly for Europe and Asia, than we have done in our history, because we are not GMO contaminated.

Another opposition group, ActionAid, has been organizing grass-roots support in Brazilian farming regions to rouse consumer sentiment against legalization. ActionAid public policy director Adriano Campolina says he is fighting for farmers to remain independent. When the small-scale farmer or a big farmer starts using this kind of seed, this farmer will be completely dependent on the transnationals, which control intellectual property rights over these seeds, he said.

Brazilian scientist Crodowaldo Pavan said there should be checks on what multinationals can do, but that doesn't mean GM seeds should be banned. He says fears over their usage are unfounded. Despite the official ban, Dr. Pavan says up to one third of Brazil's soy crop is genetically modified, because GM seed is being smuggled from Argentina. Brazil's government has invested heavily in a GM project by the U.S. biotech company, Monsanto, but the project was put on ice following a successful court challenge by consumers.

The anti-GMO groups are hoping the politicians' preoccupation with the October presidential election will give them time to gather enough support to defeat any future attempts to legalize genetically altered crops.

41. According to the passage, the issue in dispute in Brazil is ___________.

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[A] contamination of the environment by genetically modified cropsWWW.CN-MPA.COM 2004-5-27 22:19:31 [B] Brazil’s standing in the international market [C] the October presidential election [D] the legalization of genetically modified organisms

42. According to the passage, Brazil is the world’s _____________ soybean producer.

[A] largest [B] second largest [C] third largest [D] fourth largest

43. Which of the following statements is NOT true about NGOs in Brazil?

[A] They believe genetically modified crops will harm the farmers’ health. [B] They believe genetic engineering is altogether a bad practice. [C] They believe scientific methods should be introduced to ensure GM brings no harm. [D] They believe GMOs will harm Brazil economically.

44. Which of the following statements is true about the organization called ActionAid?

[A] They encourage the farmers to produce genetically modified products. [B] They encourage the farmers to depend on themselves for seeds. [C] They strongly support the legalization of genetically modified products. [D] They encourage the farmers to upgrade their farms to bigger ones.

45. What does the Brazilian scientist Crodowaldo Pavan say about genetically modified products?

[A] Genetically modified seeds should be banned. [B] Brazil government should crack down on the smuggling of genetically modified seeds. [C] The fear over the use of genetically modified seeds is uncalled for. [D] Consumers should file more law suits to protect their rights.

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答案及解析

41. 答案是[D] the legalization of genetically modified organisms 解析: 本文介绍的是巴西的一些民间组织如何反对转基因作物。他们从转基因产品对环境 的污染,对农户身体的损害,以及对巴西经济的影响出发,反对政府将转基因作物合法化。 文章主要介绍的是 Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)和 ActionAid 两个组织。 作者在文 章末尾也介绍了一些其他的立场。 例如巴西科学家 Crodowaldo Pavan, 他认为不能简单地将 转基因作物一棍子打死。过分的担忧是没有必要的。政府即使禁止转基因作物,也有从阿 根廷走私过来的种子,这使得巴西三分之一的作物实际上都是转基因的。巴西政府本来投 资准备和美国的生化公司

Monsanto 合作,但是因为消费者起诉并打赢了官司,该项目只能束之高阁。反对转基因作 物的组织还打算在 10 月的总统大选前对政客们施加压力,准备将反对转基因作物的斗争进 行到底。 42. 答案是[B] second largest 解析: 相关内容在文章开头: Brazil is the world's second largest producer of soybeans behind the United States and ahead of Argentina. 巴西为世界上第二大大豆生产国。仅次于美国,位居阿 根廷之前。

43. 答案是[B] They believe genetic engineering is altogether a bad practice. 解析: 文章第二段介绍的是 NGO 的立场。 作者引用 NGO 负责人 Jean-Marc von der Weid 的 话说,We are not saying that genetic engineering is, in principle, something bad; we say that we need more science to be sure that it will work in an appropriate way with no harm in the future, said campaign coordinator Jean-Marc von der Weid. This is both for health and environmental reasons. (我们并不是说转基因工程不好;我们的立场是,需要用科学方法来确保它不会在 将来对环境造成危害。 这主要是出于对环境和健康的考虑。 四个选项中只有[B]不符合 NGO ) 的立场。

44. 答案是[B] They encourage the farmers to depend on themselves for seeds.

南方学习网英语部

解析:文章第三段介绍的是另一个反对组织,ActionAid。它也同样反对降转基因作物合法 化。它号召巴西的农户不要依靠跨国公司作为种子的来源,否则就会被牢牢地控制住,失 去自主权。 45. 答案是[C] The fear over the use of genetically modified seeds is uncalled for. 解析: 文章第四段有如下内容: Brazilian scientist Crodowaldo Pavan said there should be checks on what multinationals can do, but that doesn't mean GM seeds should be banned. He says fears over their usage are unfounded.巴西科学家 Crodowaldo Pavan 认为应该对跨国公司实行一定 的监督, 但是不能对转基因作物全盘否定。他说,担心转基因作物的危害,是没有根据的 (unfounded)。这和[C]的叙述相符合。

注释 Notes

soybean n.大豆

retailer n.零售商人,传播的人 offensive n. 攻击

legalization n.合法化,公认

thwart vt.反对,阻碍,横过

spectacular a.公开展示的,惊人的

contaminate vt.弄污,弄脏,染污,传染,毒害 grass-roots 由乡间民间来进行的; 一般民众的; a.一般民众的,由乡间民间来进行的 sentiment n.感情,感伤,情操,情趣,感想,意见; 情绪

transnational unfounded a.无理由的; 无稽的

smuggle vt.偷运,走私,私运

南方学习网英语部

be put on ice (美国俚语)被束之高阁 preoccupation n.先取,先入成见,偏见,出神



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