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Directions: There are 4 passages in this Part. Each passage is followed by some questions or Unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One

In the 1962 movie Lawrence of Arabia, one scene shows an American newspaper reporter eagerly snapping photos of men looting a sabotaged train. One of the looters, Chief Auda abu Tayi of the Howeitat clan, suddenly notices the camera and snatches it. Am I in this? he asks, before smashing it open. To the dismayed reporter, Lawrence explains, He thinks these things will steal his virtue. He thinks you're a kind of thief.

As soon as colonizers and explorers began taking cameras into distant lands, stories began circulating about how indigenous peoples saw them as tools for black magic. The ignorant natives may have had a point. When photography first became available, scientists welcomed it as a more objective way of recording faraway societies than early travelers' exaggerated accounts. But in some ways, anthropological photographs reveal more about the culture that holds the camera than the one that stares back. Up into the 1950s and 1960s, many ethnographers sought pure pictures of primitive cultures, routinely deleting modern accoutrements such as clocks and Western dress. They paid men and women to re-enact rituals or to pose as members of war or hunting parties, often with little regard for veracity. Edward Curtis, the legendary photographer of North American Indians, for example, got one Makah man to pose as a whaler with a spear in 1915--even though the Makah had not hunted whales in a generation.

These photographs reinforced widely accepted stereotypes that indigenous cultures were isolated, primitive, and unchanging. For instance, National Geographic magazine's photographs have taught millions of Americans about other cultures. As Catherine Lutz and Jane Collins point out in their 1993 book Reading National Geographic, the magazine since its founding in 1888 has kept a tradition of presenting beautiful photos that don't challenge white, middle-class American



conventions. While dark-skinned women can be shown without tops, for example, white women's breasts are taboo. Photos that could unsettle or disturb, such as areas of the world torn asunder by war or famine, are discarded in favor of those that reassure, to conform with the society's stated pledge to present only kindly visions of foreign societies. The result, Lutz and Collins say, is the depiction of an idealized and exotic world relatively free of pain or class conflict.

Lutz actually likes National Geographic a lot. She read the magazine as a child, and its lush imagery influenced her eventual choice of anthropology as a career. She just thinks that as people look at the photographs of other cultures, they should be alert to the choice of composition and images.

1. The main idea of the passage is ______________.

[A] Photographs taken by Western explorers reflect more Westerners perception of the indigenous cultures and the Western values.

[B] There is a complicated relationship between the Western explorers and the primitive peoples.

[C] Popular magazines such as National Geographic should show pictures of the exotic and idealized worlds to maintain high sales.

[D] Anthropologists ask the natives to pose for their pictures, compromising the truthfulness of their pictures.

2. We can infer from the passage that early travelers to the native lands often _________.

[A] took pictures with the natives

[B] gave exaggerated accounts of the native lands

[C] ask for pictures from the natives

[D] gave the natives clocks and Western dresses



3. The author mentions the movie Lawrence of Arabia to ___________.

[A] show how people in the indigenous societies are portrayed by Westerners.

[B] illustrate how people from primitive societies see cameras as tools of black magic that steal their virtues.

[C] show how anthropologists portray untruthful pictures of native people.

[D] show the cruel and barbarian side of the native people. 4. But in some ways, anthropological photographs reveal more about the culture that holds the camera than the one that stares back. In this sentence, the one [culture] that stares back refers to _______.

[A] the indigenous culture

[B] the Western culture

[C] the academic culture

[D] the news business culture

5. With which of the following statements would Catherine Lutz most probably agree?

[A] Reporters from the Western societies should routinely delete modern elements in pictures taken of the indigenous societies.

[B] The primitive cultures are inferior to the more advanced Western culture.

[C] The western media are not presenting a realistic picture of the faraway societies.

[D] People in the Western news business should try not to challenge the well-established white middle-class values.



1. [A] Photographs taken by Western explorers reflect more Westerners perception of the indigenous cultures and the Western values. ӧ ֧֨ h

2. [B] gave exaggerated accounts of the native lands When photography first became available, scientists welcomed it as a more objective way of recording faraway societies than early travelers' exaggerated accounts.

3. [B] illustrate how people from primitive societies see cameras as tools of black magic that steal their virtues. 1962 7 DAVID LEAN֦ LAWRENCE VIRTUE ۧ֡ Ӧ k



4. [A] the indigenous culture in some ways, anthropological photographs reveal more about the culture that holds the But camera than the one that stares back. HOWEVER BUTNEVERTHELESS NONETHELESS

5. [C] The western media are not presenting a realistic picture of the faraway societies. Catherine Lutz 1993 READING NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 1888 ӧ C The western media are not presenting a realistic picture of the faraway societies( )

Notes snap v. loot v. sabotage v. /n. indigenous adj. exaggerated adj.



anthropological adj. ethnographer n. accoutrement n. enact v. ritual n. veracity n. legendary adj. reinforce v. stereotype n. taboo n. unsettle v. depiction n. lush adj. ֦

Passage Two

The British Medical Journal recently featured a strong response to what was judged an inappropriately lenient reaction by a medical school to a student cheating in an examination. Although we have insufficient reliable data about the extent of this phenomenon, its prevention, or its effective management, much can be concluded and acted upon on the basis of common sense and concepts with face validity.

There is general agreement that there should be zero tolerance of cheating in a profession based on trust and one on which human lives depend. It is reasonable to assume that cheaters in medical



school will be more likely than others to continue to act dishonestly with patients, colleagues, insurers, and government.

The behaviours under question are multifactorial in origin. There are familial, religious, and cultural values that are acquired long before medical school. For example, countries, cultures, and subcultures exist where bribes and dishonest behaviour are almost a norm. There are secondary schools in which neither staff nor students tolerate cheating and others where cheating is rampant; there are homes which imbue young people with high standards of ethical behaviour and others which leave ethical training to the harmful influence of television and the market place.

Medical schools reflect society and cannot be expected to remedy all the ills of a society. The selection process of medical students might be expected to favour candidates with integrity and positive ethical behaviourif one had a reliable method for detecting such characteristics in advance. Medical schools should be the major focus of attention for imbuing future doctors with integrity and ethical sensitivity. Unfortunately there are troubling, if inconclusive, data that suggest that during medical school the ethical behaviour of medical students does not necessarily improve; indeed, moral development may actually stop or even regress.

The creation of a pervasive institutional culture of integrity is essential. It is critical that the academic and clinical leaders of the institution set a personal example of integrity. Medical schools must make their institutional position and their expectations of students absolutely clear from day one. The development of a school's culture of integrity requires a partnership with the students in which they play an active role in its creation and nurturing. Moreover, the school's examination system and general treatment of students must be perceived as fair. Finally, the treatment of infractions must be firm, fair, transparent, and consistent.

6. What does the author say about cheating in medical schools?

[A] Extensive research has been done about this phenomenon.

[B] We have sufficient data to prove that prevention is feasible.



[C] We are safe to conclude that this phenomenon exists on a grand scale.

[D] Reliable data about the extent, prevention and management of the phenomenon is lacking.

7. According to the author, it is important to prevent cheating in medical schools because ____________.

[A] The medical profession is based on trust.

[B] There is zero tolerance of cheating in medicine.

[C] The medical profession depends on the government.

[D] Cheating exists extensively in medical schools.

8. What does the author say about the cause(s) of cheating?

[A] Family, culture and society play an active part.

[B] Bad school environment is the leading cause of student cheating.

[C] Parents are always to blame for their childrens cheating behaviour.

[D] Cheating exists primarily because students learn bad things from TV.

9. According to the author, what precautions should medical schools take to prevent students from cheating?

[A] Medical schools should establish a firm moral standard to weed out applicants with low integrity.

[B] Medical schools should make efforts to remedy the ills of a society.

[C] Medical schools should teach future doctors integrity and ethical values.

[D] There is nothing medical schools can do to improve the ethical behaviour of their students.



10. The author will probably agree with which of the following statements?

[A] Medical schools should make exams easier for the students to alleviate the fierce competition.

[B] Prominent figures in the medical institution should create a set of moral standards to be applied in medical schools.

[C] Medical students should play an active role in the creation and preservation of a culture of integrity.

[D] Those students who cheat in the exams should be instantly expelled from school.

6. [D] Reliable data about the extent, prevention and management of the phenomenon is lacking. Although we have insufficient reliable data about the extent of this phenomenon, its prevention, or its effective management, much can be concluded and acted upon on the basis of common sense and concepts with face validity. DATA insufficient[A][B][C] [D]

7. [A] The medical profession is based on trust. [B] [C][D]

8. [A] Family, culture and society play an active part.



[A] [A][B][C][D] Leadingalwaysprimarily

9. [C] Medical schools should teach future doctors integrity and ethical values. [A] have hadif one had a reliable method for detecting such characteristics in advance [B] Medical schools should make efforts to remedy the ills of a society. Medical schools...cannot be expected to remedy all the ills of a society.[C] regress imbuing future doctors with integrity and ethical sensitivityħ 10. [C] Medical students should play an active role in the creation and preservation of a culture of integrity. [C] The development of a school's culture of integrity requires a partnership with the students in which they play an active role in its creation and nurturing [A][B] څ۵[D] ٳ

Notes inappropriate adj. ;



lenient adj. , , validity n. , ,

multifactorial adj. () familial adj. norm n. , Z, rampant adj. , , () imbue v. ,, ethical adj. ; remedy v. , , integrity n. , , , regress v. , pervasive adj. , nurturing adj. , infraction n. , transparent adj.

Passage Three



A big focus of the criticism of computer games has concerned the content of the games being played. When the narratives of the games are analyzed they can be seen to fall into some genres. The two genres most popular with the children I interviewed were Platformers and Beat-them-ups. Platform games such as Sonic and Super Mario involve leaping from platform to platform, avoiding obstacles, moving on through the levels, and progressing through the different stages of the game. Beat-them-ups are the games which have caused concern over their violent content. These games involve fights between animated characters. In many ways this violence can be compared to violence within childrens cartoons where a character is hit over the head or falls of a cliff but walks away unscathed.

Controversy has occurred in part because of the intensity of the game play, which is said to spill over into childrens everyday lives. There are worries that children are becoming more violent and aggressive after prolonged exposure to these games. Playing computer games involves feelings of intense frustration and anger which often expresses itself in aggressive yells at the screen. It is not only the Beat-them-up games which produce this aggression; platform games are just as frustrating when the characters lose all their lives and die just before the end of the level is reached. Computer gaming relies upon intense concentration on the moving images on the screen and demands great hand-to-eye coordination. When the player loses and the words Game over appear on the screen, there is annoyance and frustration at being beaten by the computer and at having made an error. This anger and aggression could perhaps be compared to the aggression felt when playing football and you take your eye off the ball and enable the opposition to score. The annoyance experienced when defeated at a computer game is what makes gaming addictive: the player is determined not to make the same mistake again and to have one last go in the hope of doing better next time.

Some of the concern over the violence of computer games has been about children who are unable to tell the difference between fiction and reality and who act out the violent moves of the games in fight on the playground. The problem with video games is that they involve children more than television or films and this means there are more implications for their social behavior. Playing



these games can lead to anti-social behavior, make children aggressive and affect their emotional stability.

11. What is the topic of this article?

[A] How does playing computer games affect the level of violence in children [B] There is no difference between Platform games and Beat-Them-Ups. [C] How to control anger while playing computer games [D] How to make children spend less time on computer games

12. Which of the following games is supposed to contain violent content?

[A] Sonic [B] Super Mario [C] Platformer [D] Beat-Them-Up

13. What does unscathed (Paragraph 1, Last line) probably mean?

[A] unsettled [B] unbeaten [C] unharmed [D] unhappy

14. According to the second paragraph, how does violence relate to playing computer games?

[A] When losing computer games children tend to experience frustration and anger. [B] Beat-Them-Ups are more popular with children therefore more likely to produce violent behavior. [C] People who have good hand-eye-coordination tend to be more violent than others. [D] The violent content in the games gets children addicted to the games.

15. According to the author, why do video games lead to violence more than TV or movies?



[A] Because children cannot tell fiction from reality.WWW.CN-MPA.COM 2005-8-16 5:10:56 [B] Because children like to act out the scenes in the games on the playground. [C] Because computer games involve children more than TV or films. [D] Because computer games can produce more anti-social behavior.

11. [A] How does playing computer games affect the level of violence in children A big focus of the criticism of computer games has concerned the content of the games being played Controversy has occurred in part because of the intensity of the game play, which is said to spill over into children everyday lives. s There are worries that children are becoming more violent and aggressive after prolonged exposure to these games.ӧ Some of the concern over the violence of computer games has been about children who are unable to tell the difference between fiction and reality y

12. [D] Beat-Them-Up Platformers Beat-Them-Ups Sonic Beat-them-ups are the games which have caused concern over their violent content. 13. [C] unharmed ئͦunscathed In many ways this violence can be compared to violence within childrens cartoons where a character is hit over the



head or falls of a cliff but walks away unscathed. [C][A] unsettled [B] unbeatenĦĦ[D] unhappy

14. [A] When losing computer games children tend to experience frustration and anger. ͧ have one last go Platforms Beat-Them-Ups [B] Beat-Them-Ups [C] [D]֨ GAME OVER 15. [C] Because computer games involve children more than TV or films. The problem with video games is that they involve children more than television or films and this means there are more implications for their social behavior. F[A] y [D]

Notes narrative n.



genre n. obstacle n. animated adj. cliff n. unscathed adj. controversy n. spill over into prolonged adj. frustration n. coordination n. annoyance n. addictive adj. implication n. stability n.

Passage Four

In Brazil, the debate over genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, affects mostly soybean production. Brazil is the world's second largest producer of soybeans behind the United States and ahead of Argentina. Most European and Asian retailers want to remain GM free.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Brazil are going on a media offensive to prevent the legalization of genetically modified crops. Environmentalists and consumer groups for years have



been able to thwart government and companies' attempts to legalize altered food. In radio dramas that are being broadcast in remote regions, Brazilian NGOs are telling soy farmers the use of genetically modified seeds could endanger their health, their fields and their business. We are not saying that genetic engineering is, in principle, something bad; we say that we need more science to be sure that it will work in an appropriate way with no harm in the future, said campaign coordinator Jean-Marc von der Weid. This is both for health and environmental reasons. The other question is on economics. What we think is that in Brazil, if we approve the GMOs, we will lose a spectacular advantage that we have now. We are selling more to the international market, mostly for Europe and Asia, than we have done in our history, because we are not GMO contaminated.

Another opposition group, ActionAid, has been organizing grass-roots support in Brazilian farming regions to rouse consumer sentiment against legalization. ActionAid public policy director Adriano Campolina says he is fighting for farmers to remain independent. When the small-scale farmer or a big farmer starts using this kind of seed, this farmer will be completely dependent on the transnationals, which control intellectual property rights over these seeds, he said.

Brazilian scientist Crodowaldo Pavan said there should be checks on what multinationals can do, but that doesn't mean GM seeds should be banned. He says fears over their usage are unfounded. Despite the official ban, Dr. Pavan says up to one third of Brazil's soy crop is genetically modified, because GM seed is being smuggled from Argentina. Brazil's government has invested heavily in a GM project by the U.S. biotech company, Monsanto, but the project was put on ice following a successful court challenge by consumers.

The anti-GMO groups are hoping the politicians' preoccupation with the October presidential election will give them time to gather enough support to defeat any future attempts to legalize genetically altered crops.

41. According to the passage, the issue in dispute in Brazil is ___________.



[A] contamination of the environment by genetically modified cropsWWW.CN-MPA.COM 2004-5-27 22:19:31 [B] Brazils standing in the international market [C] the October presidential election [D] the legalization of genetically modified organisms

42. According to the passage, Brazil is the worlds _____________ soybean producer.

[A] largest [B] second largest [C] third largest [D] fourth largest

43. Which of the following statements is NOT true about NGOs in Brazil?

[A] They believe genetically modified crops will harm the farmers health. [B] They believe genetic engineering is altogether a bad practice. [C] They believe scientific methods should be introduced to ensure GM brings no harm. [D] They believe GMOs will harm Brazil economically.

44. Which of the following statements is true about the organization called ActionAid?

[A] They encourage the farmers to produce genetically modified products. [B] They encourage the farmers to depend on themselves for seeds. [C] They strongly support the legalization of genetically modified products. [D] They encourage the farmers to upgrade their farms to bigger ones.

45. What does the Brazilian scientist Crodowaldo Pavan say about genetically modified products?

[A] Genetically modified seeds should be banned. [B] Brazil government should crack down on the smuggling of genetically modified seeds. [C] The fear over the use of genetically modified seeds is uncalled for. [D] Consumers should file more law suits to protect their rights.





41. [D] the legalization of genetically modified organisms Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) ActionAid § Crodowaldo Pavan ҧ

Monsanto 10 42. [B] second largest : Brazil is the world's second largest producer of soybeans behind the United States and ahead of Argentina.

43. [B] They believe genetic engineering is altogether a bad practice. NGO NGO Jean-Marc von der Weid We are not saying that genetic engineering is, in principle, something bad; we say that we need more science to be sure that it will work in an appropriate way with no harm in the future, said campaign coordinator Jean-Marc von der Weid. This is both for health and environmental reasons. [B] NGO

44. [B] They encourage the farmers to depend on themselves for seeds.



ActionAid 45. [C] The fear over the use of genetically modified seeds is uncalled for. : Brazilian scientist Crodowaldo Pavan said there should be checks on what multinationals can do, but that doesn't mean GM seeds should be banned. He says fears over their usage are unfounded. Crodowaldo Pavan , unfounded[C]

Notes

soybean n.

retailer n., offensive n.

legalization n.,

thwart vt.,̷,

spectacular a.,

contaminate vt.,,,, grass-roots ; ; a., sentiment n.,,,,,;

transnational unfounded a.;

smuggle vt.,,



be put on ice preoccupation n.,,,


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